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How Does the Purchase and Sale Process in Puerto Rico Real Estate Differ From the States?

Buying and selling real estate in Puerto Rico presents a unique set of challenges and considerations distinct from those encountered in the continental United States. Investors interested in the Puerto Rican market must acquaint themselves with these differences to make informed decisions. This necessitates a thorough understanding of local regulations, tax implications, and market dynamics. 

Acknowledging these distinctions is crucial for any investor looking to successfully engage with the Puerto Rican real estate market. 

Key Takeaways

  • Puerto Rico requires a "notario" for real estate transactions due to its Spanish civil law system unlike the U.S.'s common law.
  • Act 60 offers unique tax benefits in Puerto Rico enhancing its appeal to investors and residents.
  • Due to strict environmental and zoning rules, additional permits and compliance are needed for properties in Puerto Rico's coastal and historic areas.
  • Christie's International Real Estate Puerto Rico offers specialized support for navigating the local luxury real estate market.

Purchasing Real Estate

The purchase process of real estate in Puerto Rico bears similarities and unique differences when compared to buying property in many states across the U.S. These differences can be attributed to Puerto Rico's legal system, tax codes, and real estate practices. Understanding these distinctions is crucial for investors looking to delve into the luxury real estate market in Puerto Rico.

1. Legal System and Property Law

Legal System

Puerto Rico operates under a Spanish civil law system, distinct from the common law system used in most of the U.S. This difference affects various aspects of the real estate purchase process, including contracts, property rights, and dispute resolutions.

Title and Deed Practices

In Puerto Rico, the emphasis on title research and the transfer of deeds is more stringent. A "notario" (a lawyer certified as a notary public) is mandatory for real estate transactions. This ensures that all legal aspects are properly addressed and the property is liens-free.

2. Financing and Taxes

Financing Options

Financing a real estate purchase in Puerto Rico might differ because not all mainland U.S. banks will finance properties on the island. Local banks and financial institutions often have more prominence and the terms and requirements may vary from those in the U.S.

Tax Incentives

Puerto Rico offers unique tax incentives for residents and investors, such as Act 60 (formerly known as Act 22), which provides tax benefits for new residents on passive income. These incentives can significantly impact the overall cost and benefits of luxury real estate investments on the island.

3. The Purchase Process

Due Diligence

The due diligence phase in Puerto Rico is critical, given the island's unique legal and environmental considerations. Buyers should conduct thorough property inspections, including checking for hurricane damage and understanding zoning laws.

Closing Process

The closing process involves several parties, including the buyer, seller, real estate agents, and the notario. The notario plays a crucial role in verifying documents, ensuring tax compliance and recording the deed. Closing costs in Puerto Rico are also structured differently and can include stamp duties and other fees not commonly found in U.S. mainland transactions.

4. Environmental and Zoning Regulations

Puerto Rico has specific environmental and zoning regulations that can affect real estate transactions. Investors need to be aware of additional permits and restrictions for luxury properties especially those near the coast or in historic areas.

Single Permit

The legal framework for environmental and zoning regulations in Puerto Rico has recently been streamlined to simplify the permitting process. The Puerto Rico Planning Board issued Regulation 9233, known as the Joint Regulation for Evaluation and Issuance of Permits Related to Development, Land Use, and Business Operations. This regulation, effective in January 2020, introduced the concept of a Single Permit, simplifying compliance by allowing petitioners to obtain necessary permits based on submitted documentation and commitments to meet operational requirements even if inspections still need to be performed. 

It also expanded the list of entities and professionals authorized to perform inspections. It introduced flexibility in the effective term of permits, which can now vary from 1 to 3 years at the applicant's request​​.

Difference Towards Other States

The table below highlights key differences and similarities that luxury real estate investors should consider when evaluating opportunities in these locations. 


New York



Puerto Rico

Legal System and Property Law

Common law. Uses attorneys for real estate transactions, emphasizing contract negotiations and title insurance for property rights protection.

Common law. Transactions often involve title companies and legal representation to manage property rights and contracts.

Common law. Similar to other states, with a heavy reliance on title insurance and legal counsel during real estate transactions.

Spanish civil law. Utilizes "notarios" for ensuring legal compliance including title research and deed transfer with a more stringent focus on property rights and legal documentation.

Financing and Taxes

Diverse financing options with mortgage interest deductions available. Property taxes vary significantly across the state.

Wide array of financing options. No state income tax, affecting property investment strategies. Property taxes are higher but transparent.

Various financing options available. No state income tax which influences investment attractiveness. Property taxes and homestead exemptions impact investment decisions.

Financing primarily through local banks; mainland U.S. banks may not finance properties. Unique tax incentives like Act 60 for investors on passive income.

Purchase Process

Due diligence includes property inspections and legal reviews. The closing process is facilitated by attorneys and involves closing costs including taxes and fees.

Due diligence process involves property and title inspections. The closing process is streamlined with title companies playing a central role.

Comprehensive due diligence with a focus on inspections. The closing process involves title companies with closing costs influenced by state regulations.

Critical due diligence phase, focusing on legal, environmental considerations. Notarios play a key role in the closing process, with specific stamp duties and fees not common in the mainland U.S.

Environmental and Zoning Regulations

Stringent zoning laws especially in urban areas. Environmental regulations can impact development and renovations.

Relatively flexible zoning laws though environmental quality regulations must be considered.

Zoning laws vary environmental regulations are particularly pertinent in coastal areas.

Specific regulations especially near coasts and historic sites. Environmental and zoning laws may necessitate additional permits and compliance.

Selling Real Estate

Selling a property involves several critical steps and while the overall process is similar across the United States, local laws, practices, and market conditions can introduce unique nuances. In Puerto Rico, a territory of the United States, specific considerations distinguish the sale process from that in many U.S. states. Let's explore these stages and their differences.

1. Preparing for Sale

In Puerto Rico, licensed real estate appraisers conduct property valuation by considering local market conditions, location, condition, and legal encumbrances. They also account for the impact of tourism, especially for properties near the coast or in popular tourist areas.

Difference: Compared to many U.S. states, the valuation process in Puerto Rico might give more weight to factors like hurricane resistance and the inclusion of backup power systems, given the island's susceptibility to tropical storms. Furthermore, the valuation process must consider the territory's unique tax incentives for certain buyers, which can affect property values.

2. Legal and Regulatory Considerations

Before listing a property for sale, sellers must ensure compliance with local regulations, including clear title, zoning laws, and any homeowner association (HOA) rules. Puerto Rico's legal system is a mix of U.S. federal and Spanish civil laws, which can affect transactions particularly property rights and inheritance laws.

Difference: Unlike many states, where transactions may strictly follow common law principles, Puerto Rico's blend of civil law requires careful navigation, especially concerning inheritance laws and the rights of heirs, which might necessitate additional legal steps before a property can be listed.

3. Marketing Strategies for Luxury Properties

Marketing luxury properties in Puerto Rico emphasizes showcasing unique features like ocean views and historical significance through high-quality photography and virtual tours. These efforts target international platforms to attract foreign investors, crucial to Puerto Rico's luxury market.

Difference: The emphasis on international platforms is perhaps more pronounced in Puerto Rico than in many U.S. states due to the island's appeal as a tropical destination and the various tax incentives offered to non-resident investors, such as those under Acts 20 and 22 (now Act 60).

4. Closing the Sale

The closing process involves several steps, including the execution of the deed of sale before a notary, payment of stamp duties and transfer taxes, and registration of the sale with the property registry. Puerto Rico has specific transfer taxes and fees that can differ from those on the mainland.

Differences: In many U.S. states, the process might involve less formal notarization and different tax structures. Puerto Rico's system requires notary involvement in the transaction, a practice more common in civil law jurisdictions than in the U.S. common law system. Additionally, the territory has its own tax codes that can affect capital gains and other aspects of the sale.

Challenges in Selling Property in Puerto Rico

Understanding these challenges and seeking professional advice from real estate agents, lawyers and tax experts familiar with Puerto Rican laws and market conditions can help you navigate the complexities of selling property in Puerto Rico.



Legal and Regulatory Framework

Puerto Rico's own civil code differs from the U.S. common law system, making the process of transferring titles more complex with additional documentation requirements.

Economic Factors

The island's prolonged recession and public debt crisis can influence property values and buyers' purchasing power, complicating the selling process at desired prices.

Tax Considerations

Sellers must navigate Puerto Rico's unique tax structure, which can affect capital gains, property taxes, and other expenses related to selling property.

Natural Disasters

Susceptibility to hurricanes and earthquakes can increase insurance costs and impact property values, requiring more investment in property preparation and repair.

Infrastructure and Services

Challenges with infrastructure and access to services (e.g., power outages, water supply issues) can deter potential buyers, affecting the marketability of properties.

Financing and Banking

The local banking and financing environment may differ significantly, making it harder for buyers, especially non-residents, to secure mortgages, which can impact sellers.

Cultural and Language Differences

Cultural and language differences between Puerto Rico and the mainland U.S. can impact the selling process, potentially complicating communication with buyers and professionals unfamiliar with these differences.


The purchase and sale of properties in Puerto Rico have subtle and stark differences compared to many states in the U.S. that need to be considered, either as an advantage or a challenge. Navigating the intricate landscape of real estate in Puerto Rico, with its unique legal, tax, and environmental considerations, underscores the need for expertise and local knowledge that Christie's International Real Estate Puerto Rico offers. We are adept at guiding clients through the complexities of buying, selling, or renting luxury properties, leveraging our deep understanding of the territory's distinct market conditions, legal system, and tax incentives. 

Whether you're looking to invest in a coastal getaway, sell a historic estate, or find a rental property that meets your luxury lifestyle, trust us at Christie's International Real Estate Puerto Rico to turn your real estate aspirations into reality.


Can Foreigners Buy Property in Puerto Rico, and Are There Any Restrictions?

Yes, foreigners can buy property in Puerto Rico without special restrictions, as the territory follows U.S. federal laws allowing foreigners to purchase real estate. However, foreign buyers should be aware of specific local considerations, such as the requirement for a local bank account for property transactions and the potential need for a Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act (FIRPTA) withholding certificate if they decide to sell the property. 

What Are the Financing Options Available for Non-Residents Looking to Buy Property in Puerto Rico?

Non-residents have several options for financing real estate purchases in Puerto Rico, including loans from local banks and financial institutions that offer mortgage products specifically designed for foreigners. However, the terms and availability of these loans may vary significantly from those offered in the mainland U.S., often requiring a larger down payment (typically 20-30%) and providing different interest rates. Some international banks with Puerto Rico branches may also offer non-residents mortgage financing. 

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