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The Realtor's Code of Ethics and Legal Standards in Puerto Rico Real Estate

Awareness of legal and ethical standards is paramount, particularly in Puerto Rico's distinctive regulatory environment. Interestingly, a 2018 Gallup poll revealed that only 2% of respondents rated their trust in real estate agents as "very high" regarding honesty and ethics. This statistic underscores a significant trust deficit in the industry.

With this in mind, interested investors must be thoroughly informed of these standards to safeguard their investments and adhere to local and federal regulations. This guide aims to elucidate the critical legal and ethical frameworks that govern real estate transactions in Puerto Rico, providing investors with the necessary information to make informed decisions and maintain compliance with pertinent laws.

Key Takeaways

  • Puerto Rican realtors must meet strict legal and ethical standards, including licensing and ongoing education.
  • The NAR Code of Ethics mandates fairness, honesty, and professionalism across 17 key articles.
  • Ethics or regulatory violations can lead to fines, license suspension, and other serious consequences.
  • Choosing reputable realtors like Christie's International ensures secure and successful property transactions in Puerto Rico.

What Is the Real Estate Code of Ethics?

The Code of Ethics in real estate is a comprehensive set of guidelines and principles formulated by the National Association of Realtors (NAR). This Code is specifically developed to govern the conduct and behavior of real estate professionals, aiming to uphold the industry's highest standards of professionalism and integrity. The objective is to ensure that real estate agents and brokers deliver ethical and fair services to their clients.

Encompassing 17 articles, the Code of Ethics addresses a broad spectrum of ethical issues relevant to real estate transactions. These articles are categorized into three main areas:

  1. Duties to Clients and Customers: This section emphasizes the obligations real estate professionals owe to their clients, ensuring loyalty, confidentiality, and the prioritization of client interests above their own. It mandates full disclosure of all pertinent information affecting transactions and the provision of honest and accurate advice.
  2. Duties to the Public: These duties ensure that real estate professionals conduct their business transparently and adhere to legal standards. This includes providing truthful advertising, avoiding discrimination, and engaging in practices that foster public trust in the real estate industry.
  3. Duties to Realtors: This part of the Code stipulates realtors' responsibilities towards their peers in the industry. It promotes respect for exclusive client relationships and real estate practices that enhance the profession's reputation.

Here is a complete overview of the Real Estate Code of Ethics:

Article Number



Duties to Clients and Customers


Prioritize the best interests of their clients in all transactions.


No misrepresentation, exaggeration, or concealment of facts related to the property.


Cooperate with other real estate professionals, except when it is not in the client's best interests.


Disclose any personal interest in a property being transacted.


Avoid recommending services for a kickback and do not collect money under the table.


Keep client funds separate from personal funds.


Present all transaction documents in a clear and understandable format to clients.


Duties to the Public


Prohibit discrimination in providing real estate services.


Provide services only within the professional scope of competence.


Prohibit false or misleading advertising.


Comply with all applicable laws and regulations.


Cooperate with investigations and enforcement actions by the Realtor board.


Duties to Realtors


Prohibit false or misleading statements about other real estate professionals.


Avoid soliciting clients who are under an exclusive agreement with another Realtor.


Encourage resolving disputes through mediation or arbitration by the Realtor Board.

What Are the Legal Requirements for Realtors in Puerto Rico?

In Puerto Rico, realtors must comply with stringent legal requirements to ensure professionalism, transparency, and integrity in real estate transactions. Given the island's status as a U.S. territory, these mandates are established and enforced by both local statutes and federal regulations. This section provides a concise overview of these critical legal obligations.

  • Licensing and Education: Realtors in Puerto Rico must obtain a valid license from the Puerto Rico State Department by completing required educational courses and passing a comprehensive exam on real estate laws, practices, and ethics.
  • Continuing Education: Licensed realtors must engage in ongoing education to keep abreast of evolving legal requirements, technological advances, and market conditions and ensure they maintain professional standards.
  • Ethical Conduct: Realtors are bound by a strict code of ethics that demands honesty, fairness, and responsibility. This Code is enforced by local real estate boards and aligned with the National Association of Realtors' standards.
  • Disclosure Requirements: Transparency in transactions is essential; realtors must disclose all material facts that could affect a client's decision-making, including conflicts of interest and property conditions.
  • Agency Relationships: Realtors must clearly define their agency relationships, whether they represent the buyer, the seller, or both, to prevent conflicts of interest and ensure client interests are prioritized.

What Legal Responsibilities Do Realtors Have Towards Buyers?

Realtors in Puerto Rico have several critical legal responsibilities toward buyers in doing real estate business. These responsibilities as a responsible real estate agent aim to ensure fairness, transparency, and the protection of the buyer's interests during real estate transactions. They form an integral part of the island's legal framework governing real estate practices.

Fiduciary Duties

One of the primary legal obligations of realtors towards buyers is the fiduciary duty. This duty compels realtors to act in the buyer's best interests, placing their needs and interests above their own. It encompasses various responsibilities, including loyalty, confidentiality, obedience, accountability, and diligence in exercising equal professional services. 

Full Disclosure

Realtors must provide buyers with all pertinent information that might affect their purchase decision. This includes disclosing defects in the property, the presence of liens or encumbrances, and any other material facts, such as zoning laws or future developments that could influence the property's value or usability. Disclosing such information can result in legal repercussions and damage the realtor's professional reputation.

Accurate Representation

Realtors must ensure that all representations made about a property are accurate and not misleading. This includes advertising, property descriptions, and statements made during negotiations. Providing false or exaggerated claims about a property can lead to legal liability and professional sanctions.

Compliance with Laws

Realtors are also responsible for ensuring that all aspects of a property transaction comply with applicable local and federal laws. This includes adhering to fair housing regulations prohibiting discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, disability, familial status, or national origin. Realtors must also ensure compliance with contractual terms and conditions, and local real estate transaction regulations.

Professional Advice

While realtors are not expected to provide legal or financial advice unless qualified, they are expected to provide professional real estate advice based on their training and expertise. This includes guiding buyers through general practices, potential pitfalls, and procedural steps necessary to purchase property in Puerto Rico.

What Regulates the Working Relationships of Realtors Towards Buyers?

In Puerto Rico, local regulatory bodies and national associations regulate the working relationships between realtors and buyers, specifically the Puerto Rico Real Estate Commission and the National Association of Realtors (NAR). Each of these entities plays a vital role in establishing and enforcing standards that govern the conduct and practices of real estate professionals in their dealings with buyers. Here's a detailed description of both:

  1. Puerto Rico Real Estate Commission

The Puerto Rico Real Estate Commission is a local regulatory authority responsible for overseeing the real estate industry within the territory. This commission serves several critical functions:

  • Licensing: The Commission issues licenses to real estate professionals, ensuring that only qualified and properly trained individuals practice in the real estate industry. This licensing process includes education requirements, examinations, and ongoing professional development.
  • Regulation and Oversight: It regulates real estate practices by setting rules and guidelines that govern the operations of real estate professionals. These regulations ensure ethical dealings, transparency, and fairness in all real estate transactions.
  • Enforcement: The Commission has the authority to enforce these regulations through disciplinary actions, including fines, suspension, or revocation of licenses in cases of misconduct or violation of established rules.
  • Consumer Protection: The Commission's essential role is to protect consumers' interests, ensuring that real estate professionals treat buyers fairly and ethically. It also provides a platform for consumer complaints and mediates disputes between real estate professionals and their clients.
  1. The National Association of Realtors (NAR)

While the Puerto Rico Real Estate Commission provides local oversight, the National Association of Realtors (NAR) contributes a broader, ethical dimension to the regulation of real estate professionals who choose to become members:

  • Code of Ethics: NAR enforces a stringent Code of Ethics that its members must adhere to. This Code outlines duties to clients and customers, duties to the public, and duties to fellow realtors, promoting a high standard of professional conduct and integrity.
  • Standards of Practice: Associated with the Code of Ethics, these standards provide detailed behaviors and practices that realtors are expected to follow, further defining the ethical and professional expectations in the Code.
  • Education and Training: NAR provides its members with continuous education opportunities, including ethical practices and client relations courses. These courses help realtors learn about evolving industry standards and legal requirements.
  • Advocacy: NAR also significantly advocates for laws and policies that protect property buyers and promote fair housing. This advocacy helps shape a more buyer-friendly real estate environment.

Together, the Puerto Rico Real Estate Commission and the National Association of Realtors ensure that realtors maintain a professional, ethical, and legally compliant approach when working with buyers. This safeguards buyer interests and promotes a healthy real estate market in Puerto Rico.

What Are the Consequences of Failing to Adhere to These Regulations?

Failing to adhere to the Realtor Code of Ethics and the regulations set by the Puerto Rico Real Estate Commission can result in several consequences and fines designed to enforce professional standards and protect consumer interests. Here's an overview:

Consequences of Violating the Realtor Code of Ethics

  • Disciplinary Actions: Realtors violating the Code of Ethics may face disciplinary actions from local real estate boards or the National Association of Realtors. These actions can include reprimands, mandatory additional education on ethical practices, fines, or even suspension of membership for a period.
  • Suspension or Revocation of Membership: In severe cases, a realtor's membership in the real estate board may be suspended or revoked, significantly impacting their professional standing and ability to conduct business.

Consequences of Failing to Comply with the Puerto Rico Real Estate Commission

  • Fines: The Commission can impose fines on realtors who fail to comply with statutory requirements. The amount can vary depending on the severity of the violation and whether it is a first-time or repeated offense.

For example, failure to comply with the Real estate code of ethics: According to the latest available information, the National Association of Realtors allows local realtor boards to impose fines of up to $15,000 for violations of the Code of Ethics.

  • License Suspension or Revocation: The Commission can suspend or revoke a realtor's license for serious infractions. This action can bar the realtor from practicing and could be a career-ending penalty.
  • Mandatory Corrective Actions: Realtors may be required to take corrective actions, which could include remedial education, adjustments in business practices, or restitution to harmed parties.

Additional Legal and Professional Consequences

  • Lawsuits: Violating ethical or legal standards can expose realtors to civil lawsuits from aggrieved clients or other parties. Such legal actions can result in substantial financial liabilities and damage to reputation.
  • Loss of Trust and Business: Ethical breaches and legal violations can severely damage a realtor's reputation, losing client trust and future business opportunities.

Find the Best Realtors in Puerto Rico

When investing in real estate, the choice of a realtor is not just a matter of convenience but a critical decision that affects the integrity and success of your transaction. We at Christie's International Real Estate Puerto Rico understand the gravity of this decision. Our commitment to upholding the highest standards of professionalism and ethical conduct aligns with both the stringent requirements of the Puerto Rico Real Estate Commission and the ethical guidelines set forth by the National Association of Realtors.

Our real estate agents and realtors of highly trained professionals is dedicated to ensuring transparency, fairness, and dedicated service in every interaction, thereby fostering a trustful and reliable relationship with our clients. Whether you're looking to buy, sell, or rent properties in Puerto Rico, our real estate profession and services are designed to provide expert guidance and peace of mind. Contact us today and start a smooth and trustworthy transaction toward the luxury home of your dreams.


What is Law 10 of 1994 in Puerto Rico?

Law 10 of 1994 is a critical piece of legislation in Puerto Rico that governs the licensing and regulation of real estate professionals. It outlines the requirements for obtaining a real estate license, including educational prerequisites, examination criteria, and ongoing professional development. This law ensures that all real estate agents and brokers meet certain standards of knowledge and ethical conduct.

What is the Golden Rule of the Real Estate Code of Ethics?

The Golden Rule of the Real Estate Code of Ethics is a guiding principle that encourages real estate professionals to treat others as they would like to be treated. This rule underscores the importance of fairness, honesty, and respect in all dealings. By adhering to this principle, realtors strive to maintain the highest standards of professionalism and integrity, ensuring that their actions contribute positively to their clients' trust and confidence.

How do I obtain a real estate license in Puerto Rico?

To obtain a real estate license in Puerto Rico, one must complete several steps mandated by the Puerto Rico State Department. First, candidates must enroll in an approved real estate education program that covers all necessary aspects of real estate transactions and laws. After completing the coursework, candidates must pass a comprehensive examination that tests their knowledge and understanding of real estate practices and ethical guidelines. 

Continuous education is also required to maintain the license and keep up-to-date with industry changes and legal requirements.


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